TECHNOLOGY STARTUPS ENTREPRENEURIAL REVIVAL AND THE NEW FRONTIER FOR

     AFRICA’S ECONOMIC SECURITY

 

        Philip Attuquayefio

       Dieu-Donne Gameli

       Legon Centre for International Affairs and Diplomacy

       University of Ghana

       Legon. Ghana

       Published Online: March 15, 2017

  ENDNOTES

 

   1.    Kaberuka, Donald (2011). "Development and Aid in Africa." Development Co-operation Report,  pp. 57-65.

 

   2.   International Monetary Fund (2014). World Economic Outlook: Legacies, Clouds, Uncertainties. Washington (October).

 

   3.   The Economist (2011). “Africa’s Impressive Growth.” http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/01/daily_chart.

         Retrieved on January 12, 2015.

 

   4.   The Economist (2011). “Africa’s hopeful economies: The sun shines bright.” http://www.economist.com/node/21541008.

          Retrieved on January 8, 2015.

 

   5.   Vogt, Heidi (2014). "Africa's Challenges Are Tech Startups' Opportunities."  Web. January 9, 2015.

 

   6.   The Economist (2013). “Why Does Kenya Lead the World in Mobile Money?” http://www.economist.com/blogs/

          blogs/economist-explains/ 2013/05/economist-explains-18. Retrieved on January 15, 2015.

 

   7.   Findlay, Stephanie(2013). "Welcome to the 'Silicon Savannah'." Canadian Business. 86.11/12, pp. 51-52. Print.

 

   8.   “Demo Africa Startups seek to Raise Over KSM. 500 Million in Growth Capital” Africa News Service. October 31, 2012.

         Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources. Web. January 9, 2015.

 

   9.   “Gov’t Supports ICT Startups with N1.5 Billion Fund. Targets more FDIs” Africa News Service. October 14, 2014. Global

         Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources. Web.  January 9, 2015.

 

  10.   Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) (2007). National Information and Communication Infrastructure (NICI) e-

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         Commissioned by the Economic Commission for Africa.

 

   11.   McKay, J. P., Hill, B. D., Buckler, J., Beck, R. B., Ebrey, P. B., & Crowston, C. H. (2011). A History of World  Societies.

         Combined Volume. Macmillan.

 

   12.   Ibid.

 

   13.   Ibid.

 

   14.   Kaja Tvedten, Michael Wendelboe Hansen, Søren Jeppesen, (2014) "Understanding the rise of African Business: In

          Search of Business Perspectives on African Enterprise Development." African Journal of Economic and Management

          Studies 5 (3), pp.249 – 268.

 

   15.   Ibid.

 

   16.   Kaja Tvedten , Michael Wendelboe Hansen , Søren Jeppesen  Op. Cit.

 

   17.   Ibid.

 

   18.   Sriram, Ven, and Tigineh Mersha (2010) "Stimulating Entrepreneurship in Africa." World Journal of Entrepreneurship,

         Management and Sustainable Development 6 (4), pp. 257-72. Print.

 

   19.   Ibid.

 

   20.   Accenture (2010). “Africa: the New Frontier for Growth.” http://nstore.accenture.com/pdf/Accenture_Africa_The_

            New_Frontier_for_Growth.pdf . Retrieved on March 13, 2015).

 

   21.    McKinsey Global Institute (2010). Lions on the Move: The Progress and Potential of African Economies.

 

   22.   Ernst & Young (2011). It’s time for Africa – Ernst & Young’s 2011 Africa attractiveness survey, Ernst & Young

           Publications, London, available at: www.ey.com /Publication/vwLUAssets/2011_Africa_Attractiveness_ Survey/$FILE/

           11EDA187_attractiveness_africa_low_resolution_final.pdf. Accessed on March 10, 2015.

 

   23.   AfDB (2011). Africa Competitiveness Report 2011, The African Development Bank, Tunis.

 

   24.   UNECA (2012). “Unleashing Africa’s Potential as a Pole of Global Growth,” Economic Report on Africa 2012. United

            Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

 

   25.   Lyakurwa, W. (2009). Climate Change and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy Brief, (3).

 

   26.   Sriram, Ven, and Tigineh Mersha. Op. Cit.

 

   27.   Sheriff, Michael, and Moreno Muffatto (2015). "The Present State of Entre preneurship Ecosystems in Selected

           Countries in Africa." African Journal of Economic and Management Studies 6 (1) pp. 17-54. Print.

 

   28.   Benzing, C., Hung, M., and Chu A. (2009). “Comparison of the Motivations of Small Business Owners in Africa.”

           Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 16 (1).

 

   29.   Tech Startups: A Cambrian Moment. (January 18, 2014). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from http://www.economist.com/

            news/ special-report/21593580-cheap-and-ubiquitous-building-blocks-digital-products-and-services-have-caused.

 

   30.   Ries, E. (2011). The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically

           Successful Businesses. Random House LLC.

 

   31.    Blank, S. (2013). The Four Steps to the Epiphany. K&S Ranch.

 

   32.   Ibid.

 

   33.   Ibid.

 

   34.   Tech Startups: A Cambrian moment (January 18, 2015). Retrieved on May 2, 2015 from http://www.economist.com/

            news/special-report/21593580-cheap-and-ubiquitous-building-blocks-digital-products-and-services-have-caused.

 

   35.   Jaruzelski, B. (March 14, 2014). Why Silicon Valley's Success Is So Hard to Replicatehttp://www.scientificamerican.

            com/ article/why-silicon-valleys-success-is-so-hard-to-replicate/ Retrieved on April 4, 2015.

 

   36.   Chilean Economic Development Organization (2012). “Startup Chile,” para. 1.

 

   37.   Tobi Cohen, “Canada Looks to Poach Silicon Valley Entrepreneurs Struggling with U.S. Immigration Woes.” Financial

           Post, May 17, 2013.

 

   38.   Scruggs, G. (April 13, 2015). How Nairobi Built a Thriving Tech Community. http://www.citylab.com/tech/2015/04/

           how-nairobi-built-a-thriving-tech-community/390387/?fb_ref=Default. Retrieved on April 19, 2015.

 

   39.   Tech hubs across Africa: Which will be the legacy-makers? (n.d.). http://blogs.worldbank.org/ic4d/tech-hubs-across-

            africa-which-will-be-legacy-makers. Retrieved on May 4, 2015.

 

   40.   World Bank (2011).

 

   41.    ITU, The World in 2013: Facts and Figures, February 2013. ITU World Telecommunication /ICT Indicators database.

 

   42.   ITU

 

   43.   ECA (2007).

 

   44.   Ibid.

 

   45.   Gathege D. and Moraa H. (2013) Report on Comparative Study on Innovation Hubs across Africa. IHub Research.

 

   46.   Ibid.

 

   47.   Ibid.

 

   48.   Ibid.

 

   49.   VC4Africa, (2015). Venture Finance in Africa. VC4Africa Research.

 

   50.   Akinyemi, T. (March 24, 2015). Skype Interview.

 

   51.    Lebus, M. (January 2, 2013). Africa Under the Venture Capital Spotlight. http://www.thenextwomen.com/ 2013/01/02/

            africa-under-venture-capital-spotlight.org/ic4d/tech-hubs-across-africa. Retrieved on May 5, 2015

 

   52.   Ibid.

 

   53.   Wulff, K. (November 20, 2013). Google Africa Blog. http://google-africa.blogspot.com/2013/11/launching-project-link-

           new-way-to-bring_20.html. Retrieved on May 5, 2015.

 

   54.   Jackson, T. (March 13, 2015). Africa Tech Trends: TV white spaces for affordable internet? http://www.Howwemade

            itinafrica.com/africa-tech-trends-tv-white-spaces-for-affordableinternet/47613/ Retrieved on May 5, 2015.

 

   55.   Shieber, J. (February 23, 2014). U.S. Investments Surge for African Tech Entrepreneurshttp://techcrunch.com/

           2014/02/23/u-s-investments-surge-for-african-tech-entrepreneurs/

 

   56.   Ibid.

 

   57.   Ottevanger, W., Van den Akker, J. J. H., & de Feiter, L. (2007). Developing science, mathematics, and ICT education

           in Sub-Saharan Africa: Patterns and promising practices (No. 101). World Bank Publications.

 

   58.   Greenberg, M. (2014). The Ghanaian Startup Ecosystem. http://mestghana.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/

           2014/09/Ghanaian_Startup_Ecosystem_Report.pdf. Retrieved on April 12, 20.

 

   59.   Ibid.

 

   60.   Africa is the Future, but their Innovation Ecosystems Need Help. (November 15, 2013). http://www.innovationisevery

            where.com/africa-future-innovation-ecosystems-need-help/ Retrieved on May 5, 2015

 

   61.    Feld, B. (2012). Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City. John Wiley & Sons.

 

   62.   Remarks by Ambassador Gene A. Cretz at Ghana Entrepreneur Hall of Fame Induction Awards. (April 14, 2015).

            Retrieved on June 2, 2015 from http://ghana.usembassy.gov/pr04242015.html.

 

   63.   Remarks by President Obama at the Global Entrepreneurship Summit. (July 25, 2015). https://www.whitehouse.gov/

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   64.   An idea whose time has come. (March 14, 2009). Retrieved on June 2, 2015 from http://www.economist.com/node/

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   65.   Government of Ghana (2003). The Ghana ICT for Accelerated Development Policy Statement Government of Ghana.

 

   66    ECONOMIC PILLAR. (n.d.). http://www.vision 2030.go.ke/index.php/pillars. Retrieved on June 2, 2015.

 

   67.   Technology Hubs in Africa. (n.d.). http://www.digital-development-debates.org/issue-09-prejudice--african-innovation

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   68.   Wennekers, S., & Thurik, R. (1999). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth.” Small Business Economics, 

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   75.   Ibid.

 

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   85.   McKay, C., & Mazer, R. op. cit.

 

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   87.   Hansch, N. (April 16, 2015). Personal Interview.

 

   88.   Osborn, A. K. (March 21, 2015). Personal Interview.

 

   89.   A4AI. (2014). The Affordability Report. http://a4ai.org/affordability-report/report/ Retrieved on June 2, 2015.

 

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