GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
Copyright © 2008 International Development Options
All Rights Reserved
Volume Five Winter 2007-Spring 2008 Numbers 1-2.
THE EFFECTS OF RACE AND SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS ON EXPOSURE TO HEALTH RISK FACTORS:
THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES EPA IN THE PROMOTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE AND
Ngozi Ngozi Kamalu Johnson Kamalu
Department of Government Department of Family
and History and Consumer Sciences
Fayetteville State University School of Agricultural and
Fayetteville, North Carolina Environmental Sciences
Alabama A&M University
Published Online: February 10, 2017
This study tests the hypothesis that ethnicity/race and class are predominant factors in decisions to locate hazardous waste facilities in minority and low-income neighborhoods in the United States. The investigation also explores the origins and development of the environmental justice movement. Drawing on the review of numerous academic literature and landmark California studies by the Center for Justice, Tolerance and Community, and the University of California, Santa Cruz (February 2007), the study concludes that minorities and poor people are disproportionately exposed to environmental risks and pollutants, compared with their white and affluent counterparts. Finally, the study recommends neighborhood education, lobbying, internship programs, and litigation as possible effective actions for community empowerment and coping with environmental justice challenges.