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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

                                                                            Copyright © 2008 International Development Options

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Volume Five                                                                   Winter 2007-Spring 2008                                                              Numbers 1-2.

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    THE EFFECTS OF RACE AND SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS ON EXPOSURE TO HEALTH RISK FACTORS:

    THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES EPA IN THE PROMOTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE AND

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
 

     Ngozi Ngozi Kamalu                                                Johnson Kamalu

    Department of Government                                    Department of Family

    and History                                                               and Consumer Sciences

    Fayetteville State University                                    School of Agricultural and

    Fayetteville, North Carolina                                     Environmental Sciences

                                                                                       Alabama A&M University

                                                                                       Normal, Alabama

     Published Online: February 10, 2017

     ABSTRACT

  

This study tests the hypothesis that ethnicity/race and class are predominant factors in decisions to locate hazardous waste facilities in minority and low-income neighborhoods in the United States. The investigation also explores the origins and development of the environmental justice movement. Drawing on the review of numerous academic literature and landmark California studies by the Center for Justice, Tolerance and Community, and the University of California, Santa Cruz (February 2007), the study concludes that minorities and poor people are disproportionately exposed to environmental risks and pollutants, compared with their white and affluent counterparts. Finally, the study recommends neighborhood education, lobbying, internship programs, and litigation as possible effective actions for community empowerment and coping with environmental justice challenges.

 

 

IDO        ISSN: 1093-8281                 Copyright © 2017 International Development Options

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