GLOBAL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

                                                                            Copyright © 2008 International Development Options

                                                                                               All Rights Reserved

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Volume Five                                                                   Winter 2007-Spring 2008                                                              Numbers 1-2.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________            

     UNEQUAL EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL DANGER AND THE SEARCH FOR ANSWERS:

    A REEXAMINATION OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS STUDY

 

 

     Ngozi Ngozi Kamalu                                                Johnson Kamalu

    Department of Government                                    Department of Family

    and History                                                               and Consumer Sciences

    Fayetteville State University                                    School of Agricultural and

    Fayetteville, North Carolina                                     Environmental Sciences

                                                                                       Alabama A&M University

                                                                                       Normal, Alabama

     Published Online: February 10, 2017

 

     ABSTRACT

 

This article examines the famous 2001 environmental study in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It examines the central premise that different people and groups are exposed to different levels of hazardous waste. It explores numerous studies on environmental justice research on the theme and then compares their conclusions. The study acknowledged that several factors such as zoning regulations, immigrant status, age, lack of organizational infrastructure and inadequate waste disposal services, while tangentially, are predictors of how far exposed people are to hazardous waste facilities relative to where they live, work and play, and that race and economic status still remain the predominant determinants. The study recommends changes to unfair zoning laws, neighborhood integration, increased wages, improved education, and sanctions on banks, mortgage agencies, and insurance companies that discriminate on the basis of race/ethnicity and class. Additional recommendations include increased government funding for environmental protection agencies, empowerment of vulnerable and powerless groups through education and the placement of a moratorium on the establishment of new waste plants and power stations, pending comprehensive feasibility and environmental impact studies.

   

 

 

IDO        ISSN: 1093-8281                 Copyright © 2017 International Development Options

                                                                                                All Rights Reserved