THE CARIBBEAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: PROSPECTS FOR GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS IN MEDICAL           TOURISM SERVICES IN THE CARIBBEAN

 

     Natallie Rochester King

     Technical Adviser, Services Specialist

     Office of Trade Negotiations (Jamaica)

     CARICOM Secretariat

 

     Published online: February 10, 2017

     REFERENCES

 

       1.   AG Center for Advanced Medicine. http://www.Cirgia bariatricaabelGonzalez .com/html/about.html. Accessed on

           August 13, 2013.

 

     2.   A-Z Information Limited for Caribbean Export Development Agency (2010). “Opportunities for Doing Business

           between CARIFORUM States.” http://www.carib-export.com/login/wpcontent/uploads 2010/ 04/Final%20

           Consolidated%20Report%20November%202010.pdf.

 

     3.   Access Global Healthcare (2013). “Portability of Healthcare and Medical Services.” Presentation by Helen Cosburn to

           the UWI Consulting Conference on Moving Up Global Value Chains: Options and Strategies for the Global South and

           Small States, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, November 8, 2013.

 

     4.   Adlung, R.; Zhang, W. (2012). “Trade Disciplines with a Trapdoor: Contract Manufacturing.” WTO Working Paper.                     ERSD-2012-11. http:// www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd20 1211_e.pdf.

 

    5.   American Global MD (2013). “Medical Tourism” http://americang lobalmd.com/Medical-Tourism.html. Accessed on

          August 13, 2013.

 

    6.   Amgen (2013). Fact Sheet. August 19, 2013. http:// www. amgen. com/pdfs/misc/Fact_Sheet_Amgen.pdf. 

 

    7.   Anukoonwatta_Sheeka, Witada (2012). “Roles of Services in Global Value Chains: A Review.” Presentation to ARTNeT

          Conference on Empirical and Policy Issues of Integration in Asia and the Pacific, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2,

          2012. http://www.unescap.org/tid/artnet/mtg/epii - s4-witada. pdf. August 24, 2013.

 

    8.   Asia Focus. “The Outlook for Medical Tourism in Asia”. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.bangkokpost.com/business/

          economics/ 330724/the-outlook-for-medical-tourism-in-asia.

 

    9.   Barbados Coalition of Services Industries (2013). “65% off ITEC Level 2 Certification in Complementary and Alternative

          Therapies.” September 23, 2013. Accessed on September 25. 2013.

 

   10.   Barrett, Kathy (2013). “Jamaica Government May Withdraw Air Jamaica Brand from Caribbean Airlines.” Jamaica

          Gleaner Online, April 15, 2013. Available from http://jamaica-gleaner.com/extra/article. php?id=2337.

 

   11.    Belize Invest (2013). “Infotel, a Belize Success Story in the Global BPO Industry.” Volume 1, 2013, pp. 13-15. Electronic

          Access: www.belizeinvest.org.bz.

 

   12.   Bobb-Semple, Asha – Former Program Coordinator, Jamaica Coalition of Service Industries (JCSI). Personal Interview.

          October 1, 2013.

 

   13.   Boyce, Natasha (2013). “Regional TSA Initiative: Background and Goals.”  Presentation at the Caribbean Tourism

          Organization State of the Industry Conference, Martinique, October 16, 2013. http://www.one caribbean.org/wp-

           content/uploads/Regional -TSA presentation-October-2013.pdf.

 

   14.   “$200m Medical Tourism Facility Proposed for Bahamas,” Caribbean News Now. N.p.  April 16, 2013.

           http://www.caribbeannewsnow. com/topstory-$200m-medical-tourism-facility-proposed -for-Bahamas-15398.html.

           Accessed on September 23, 2013.

 

   15.   Caribbean Association of Medical Councils (2013). “About Us.” http://camcouncils.org/aboutus.

 

   16.   Caribbean Association of National Training Agencies, CANTA (2013). “Member Countries.” http://cantaonline.org

           /index.php? option=com_con tent&view=article&id=181&Itemid = 47. Accessed on January 3, 2014.

 

   17.    ----------- (2013). “Regional Occupational Standards.” http://cantaonline.org/index.php? Option=com_content&view=

           article&id=178&I temid=213. Accessed on January 3, 2014.

 

   18.   Caribbean Export Development Agency (2008). “Health and Wellness Tourism: Strategies for Success within the

          CSME”. November 2008. http://www.onecaribbean.org/content/files/10StrategySeriesHWFINA LCbbnExport.pdf.

 

   19.   Caribbean Export Development Agency/C-SWA (2013). “Caribbean Spa and Well Strategy 2014-2018.” Prepared by

           LCT Consulting. http://issuu.com/caribbeanexport/docs/caribbean _spa_and _wellness_strategy.

 

   20.   Caribbean Export Development Agency (CEDA) (2010). “Volume 2: Individual Country Reports”. Prepared by

            Watson, Noel and Angelo, Lucia. http://www.carib-export.com/ login/wp-content/uploads/2010/ 04/Final%20

            Individual%20Reports%20 November%202 01 0.pdf.

 

   21.   Caribbean Community Secretariat (2013) “Caribbean Community Regional Aid for Trade Strategy, 2013-2015.”

           February 2013. www. caricom.Org.

 

   22.   Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery “The CARIFORUM-EC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA)

           Treatment of Tourism in the EPA” Brief No. 3200.3/EPA-09[08]

 

   23.   Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM) (2001). “Health Tourism and Related Services: Caribbean

           Development and International Trade.” Prepared by Gonzales, Anthony et al (Logan Brenzel and Jennifer Sancho),

           August 31, 2001. http://www.crnm.org/index. php?Option=com_docman&Itemid= 85.

 

   24.   CTO 2011. “Caribbean Response to the UK Government’s Consultation on Reform of the APD.” June 29, 2011.

           Air Passenger Duty (APD).  http://www.onecaribbean.org/our-work/advocacy/air-passenger-duty-apd/

 

   25.   Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) (2013).” Human Resource Development.” http://www.onecaribbean.org/our-

            work /human-resource -development/ Accessed on January 3, 2014.

 

   26.   Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) (2013).” Legislation Database.” Available from http://www.onecaribbean.org/

            resources/ cto-publications/

 

   27.    ------------ (2013). “Tourist Arrivals by Main Market 2012.” Available from http://www.onecaribbean.org/statistics/

 

   28.    -------------- (2013). “Tourism Satellite Accounts.” Research and Info. Technology. http://www.onecaribbean.org/our-

            work/research-infotech/

 

   29.    ----------------(2003). “Quality Assurance and Articulation. Hospitality and Tourism Programs in the Caribbean.”

            Prepared by Ethyl D. London and Denis F. Paul.  http://www.Onecaribbean. org/content/files/QAFramework.pdf.

 

   30.   Caribcert (2013). “Caribcert for Service Performance and Profit.” Caribcert. http://www.caribcert.com/docs/

           OccCriteria _0204.pdf. Accessed on December 15, 2013.

 

   31.   Center for International Economics (2010). Canberra and Sydney “Quantifying the Benefits of Services liberalization.”

           Prepared for the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, June 2010.  http://www.dfat.gov.au/publica tions/trade/

          Quantifying-the-benefits-of-services-trade-liberalisation.pdf.

 

   32.   Center on Globalization Governance and Competitiveness (2006). “Global Value Chains: Concepts and Tools.”

           http://www.globalvalue chains.org/concepts.html. Accessed on April 29, 2013.

 

   33.   CEPTON Strategies “Strategic Outsourcing Across the Pharmaceuticals Value Chain.” N.d. http://www.cepton.net/

           publications/download/cepton-Strategic-outsourcing-across-the-pharmaceuticals-value-chain.pdf.

 

   34.   Chaitoo, Ramesh (2013). “Public Private Partnerships to Fit into Global Value Chains: Atlantic LNG in Trinidad and

           Tobago.” Presentation to the ADBI Institute event, Plugging into Global Value Chains: Atlantic LNG in Trinidad and

           Tobago, June 3-5, 2013. http://www.adbi.org/conf-seminar-papers/2013 /07/31/ 5844.ppp.fit.global.value.chains/

 

   35.    ----------------------(2012). “Overview of Select Issues in Negotiations on a Comprehensive Economic and Trade

           Agreement (CETA) Between the European Union and Canada.” Presentation to Committee on International Trade

           (INTA) of the European Parliament Workshop on EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade

           Agreement, October 10, 2012.

 

   36.   Chambers, Donna & McIntosh, Bryan (2008). “Using Authenticity to Achieve Competitive Advantage in Medical

           Tourism in the English-speaking Caribbean.” Third World Quarterly 29 (5), 2008, pp 919 – 937.

 

   37.   Christian, Michelle (2013). “Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender in the Tourism Industry.” In Staritz,

           C. and Reis, J.G. (Editors). Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender: Case Studies of the Horticulture,

           Tourism and Call Center Industries, World Bank. http://siteresources. World Bank. org/INTRAN ETTRADE/Resources/

           239054-1305664393028/GVC_ Gender_Report_ web.pdf.

 

   38.   Collinder Avia (2013). “Spa and Wellness to be sold as a tourism product.” Jamaica Gleaner Online. August 14, 2014.

            http: //jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20130814/business/business 9.html.  Accessed on January 3, 2014.

 

   39.   Collinder, Avia (2013). “US$170m medical tourism facility for St James.” Jamaica Gleaner Online, February 14, 2013.

            http: //jamaica-gleaner.com/latest/article.php?id= 428 76. Accessed on September 24, 2013.

 

   40.   Council of the European Union (2013). “Agreement Details.” http://www. consilium.europa.eu/policies/agreements/

            search-the-agre ements-database? Command=details&lang=en&aid= 2008034&doc lang = EN. Accessed on January

            3, 2014.

 

   41.   Deloitte (2008). “Medical Tourism. Consumers in Search of Value.” http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_HR/hr/industries

           /lifescienceshealthcare/964710a8b410e110VgnVCM100000 ba42 f00aRCRD.htm.

 

   42.   Dominican Association for Health Tourism (2013). “Health Services” N.p. http://adtusalud.org/en/health-services/.

           Accessed on September 24, 2013.

 

   43.   Drake-Brockman, Jane and Sherry Stephenson (2013). “Implications for 21st Century Trade and Development of the

           Emergence of Services Value Chains.” http://aienetwork.org/training/2013/plugging-into-global-value-chains/

           presentations/5-1-ppd-chaitoo.pdf.

 

   44.   ECDPM (2011). “Tourism and Development in Caribbean-EU Relations. Bridging the Gap Between Policy and

           Practice.” Briefing Note Number 23, March 2011. http://www.ecdpm.Org /Web _ECDPM/Web/Content/Download.

           nsf/0/3FF4398D55E3985CC125785300399370/$FILE/bn23-Tourism%20in%20Caribbean.pdf.

 

   45.   European Center for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) (2008). “Turning Mode 4 Commitments into

           Business: The CARIFORUM-European Community EPA.” Trade Negotiations Insight 7 (10), December 2008/January

           2009, pp.12-13.

 

   46.   FTAs and a Proposal of an International Supply Chain Agreement.” August 15, 2013.  http://www.voxeu.org/article/it

           time-international-supply -chain-agreement.

 

   47.   Fung Global Institute and World Trade Organization (2013). “Supply Chain Perspectives and Issues: A Literature

           Review” Park, Albert et al (Gaurav Nayyar, Patrick Low) 2013. http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/

           aid4tradesupplychain 13_e.htm

 

   48.   Gereffi, Gary and Fernandez-Stark, Karina (2011). “Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer” (May 31, 2011). http://www.

           cggc.duke.Edu/pdfs/2011-05-31_GVC_analysis_a_primer.pdf.

 

   49.   Government of Canada (2007). “Sharpening Canada’s Competitive Edge.” Consultation paper issued by the

           Competition Policy Review Panel, October 30, 2007.  http://www. ic.gc.ca/eic/ site/cprp-gepmc.nsf/vwapj/

            sharpening_e.pdf/$FILE/sharpening_ e.pdf.

 

   50.   Hospitality Assured Caribbean (2013). “About Hospitality Assured” http://hospitalityassuredcaribbean.com/

           Accessed on January 3, 2013.

 

    51.   Hospitality Assured Caribbean (2013). “Certified Businesses” http://hospitalityassured caribbean. com/ Accessed on

           January 3, 2013.

 

   52.   Hospiten (2013). “Hospitals and Specialty Centers.” http:// www. hospiten.com/en/hospitals-and-centers. Accessed

           on January 3, 2013. 

 

   53.   Hugh Wynter Fertility Management Clinic (2011). “Director’s Message.” http://www.uwi.edu/fertility/default.aspx.

           Accessed on September 23, 2013.

 

   54.   ILAC (2012). “ILAC MRA 2012 Annual Report.” https://www. ilac.org/documents/ILAC_MRA_2012_Annual_Report.pdf.

 

   55.   IMF World Economic Outlook (2012). "Growth Resuming, Dangers Remain” April 2012, Washington, D.C.: International

           Monetary Fund.

 

   56.   Institute of Functional Medicine (2013). “What is Functional Medicine." http://www.functionalmedicine.org/about/

           whatisfm/

 

   57.   Jacob, Steve (2013). “Why International Medical Tourism is Growing.” D Magazine Special Report. January 2013.

            http://www.dmagazine.com/publications/d-magazine/2013/special-report-collin-county-medical-directory/why-

            international-medical-tourism-is-growing.

 

   58.   Jamaica Coalition of Services Industries (JCSI) (2012). “Launch of the Business Process Industry Association of

           Jamaica.” September 28, 2012. http://jamaicacsi.org/launch-of-the-business-process-outsourcing-industry-

           association-of-jamaica/

 

   59.   MoBay Hope Online (2013). MoBay Hope Medical Center http://www.mobayhope.org. Accessed on September 1,

           2013.

 

   60.   Nakatomi, Michitaka (2013). “Global Value Chain Governance in the Era of Mega Mora, Taiana – Managing Director,

            NEX Consulting.  Personal Interview.  January 7, 2014.

 

   61.   Nelson, Brett. (2011). “The Most Profitable Small Businesses”. Forbes Magazine. 10 February 2011. http://www.forbes.

          com/sites/brettnelson/2011/02/10/the-most-profitable-small-businesses/

 

   62.   Nethersole, Adam. “Developing your medical tourist industry” Commonwealth Ministers Reference Book 2012.

           London: Henley Media Group for the Commonwealth Secretariat. pp.260-262.  http://www.Commonwealth

           ministers.com/images/uploads/ documents/260-262.pdf.

 

   63.   Nugent, Stevonne et al. Inter-American Development Bank Caribbean Regional Quarterly Bulletin 2 (3), August 2013.

            http://www.iadb.org/en/publications/publication-detail,7101.html?id= 70556&dc Language=en&dcType=All#.UjWe2

            X_Wah4.

 

   64.   Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2013). “Interconnected Economies: Benefiting

            from Global Value Chains.” OECD Publishing 2013. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/8789264189560-en

 

   65.    ---------- (2013). “Measuring Trade in Value Added: An OECD-WTO Joint Initiative.”  http://www.oecd.org/industry/ind/

            measuringtradeinvalue-addedanoecd-wtojointinitiative.htm. Accessed on September 15, 2013.

 

   66.    ---------- (2007). “Moving up the (Global) Value Chain.” Policy Brief July 2007,  http://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/3897979.

             pdf.

 

   67.   OECD/UNWTO/WTO (2013). “Aid for Trade and Value Chains in Tourism”.  http://www.oecd.org/dac/aft/AidforTrade

            _SectorStudy_Tour ism.pdf.

 

   68.   ------------------------------ (2013). “Trade in Value Added (TIVA) Indicators – Indonesia.” http://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/

           TiVAINDONESIA_MAY_ 2013.pdf.

 

   69.   Pacific Consulting Group (Asia) Ltd. “Services Trade: New Approaches for the 21st Century” (2011).

           http://www.pecc.org/ frontpage-section/issues/332-pecc-adbi-conference-on-enhancing-competitiveness-and-

           facilitating-regional-trade-and-investment-in-services.

 

   70.   Patients Beyond Borders (2013) “Medical Tourism Statistics & Facts”. http://www.patientsbeyondborders.com/

            medical-tourism-statistics-facts.

 

   71.   Pharmalive (2011). “Global Contract Manufacturing: Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology. Special Report. November

           2011.”  http://www.pharmalive.com/sites/pharmalive.com/files/special-reports/samples/cmo_sample_1111.pdf.

 

   72.   Price, Lincoln - CARICOM Investment Negotiator and former Private Sector Liaison, CARICOM Secretariat office of

          Trade Negotiations. Personal Interview, August 27, 2013.

 

   73.   Research and Markets (2013). “Medical Tourism Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and

           Forecast, 2013 – 2019.” Summary Published October 2013. http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/gnrg4z/

           medical_tourism.

 

   74.   RNCOS “Medical Tourism Trends.” December 2010. http:// www.rncos.com/trends/WEVHHOOS9Q1328231078.pdf.

 

   75.   Robertson, Jordan (2013). “When Patients Grab Their Passports.” Bloomberg News Online, June 26, 2013.

           http://www. bloomberg.com/news /2013-06-26/when-patients-grab-their-passports.html

 

   76.   Rochester King, Natallie (2012). “Caribbean Trade in Services, The Current Framework and Opportunities for the

           Region’s Services Suppliers.” Services Scoop, the Caribbean Trade in Services Magazine, Inaugural Issue, January

           2012, pp. 13-16.

 

   77.   Salleh, Noorainie, Mohamad, Syed & Taib, Siti (2011). “Investigating Critical Success Factors of Value Chain in Health

           Tourism Industry in Malaysia.” Business & Management Quarterly Review 2 (3), pp. 59-69.

 

   78.   Shannon, Thomas A. (1997). An Introduction to Bioethics. 3rd Edition revised and Updated, Paulist Press, New York.

 

   79.   Smith Travel Research, Inc. (STR) (2012). “Caribbean Hotel Outlook” for the Caribbean Hotel and Tourism Association.

           http://www.caribbeanhotelandtourism.com/event-chtic/downloads/2013 /PresentationAmanda-Hite -STR.pdf.

 

   80.   Soothing Touch (2007-2013) “Spa Services.” http://www. Soothingtouchspa.com/spaservices.cfm. Accessed on

           September 20, 2013.

 

   81.   Srai, Jagit & Alinaghian, Leila (2009). “Mapping Emerging Value Chains in Pharmaceutical Industries.” 

            http://software3. net/m/mapping-emerging-value-chains-in-pharmaceutical-industry-e156

 

   82.   Ted Emmanuel Naturopathic Solutions Center Online. “Ted Emmanuel Wellness/Solutions.” N.d. http://emanuelsite.

           wordpress.com/

 

   83.   Trade and Investment Framework Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the

           Caribbean Community. http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/trade-investment-framework-agreements.

 

   84.   Treatment Abroad (2008). “Compare the Cost of Wisdom Tooth Extraction Abroad.” http://treatmentabroad.build.

           eibs.co.uk/cost/ dentistry-abroad-cost/wisdom-extraction/

 

   85.   Trinidad and Tobago Coalition of Services Providers (TTCSI) (2012). “Draft National Strategy for Medical Tourism.”

           Prepared by Mark Hellyer. http://www.ctaeconomic.com/uploads/ files/unsorted/Draft%20Strategy%20(medical).pdf

 

   86.   Trinidad and Tobago Manufacturers Association (2011). “TTMA Joins with IADB to launch Value Chain Project.”

           October 31, 2011. http://www.ttma.com/news/ttma_joins_with_iadb_to_ laun ch_value_chain_project/

 

   87.   United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2013). Global Investment Trends Monitor, Special

            Edition, March 2013.

 

   88.   United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2013). World Investment Report 2013. http://

           unctad.org/en/pages/PublicationWebflyer.aspx?publicationid=588.

 

   89.   United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Paffhausen, Anna Luisa et al,

            “Medical Tourism: A Survey” March 2010

 

   90.   United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (2004). Memedovic, Olga. “Inserting Local Industries

            into Global Value Chains and Global Production Networks: Opportunities and Challenges for Upgrading, with a

            Focus on Asia.” Working Paper.

 

   91.   United Nations World Tourism Organization (2010). “Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological

            Framework” (TSA: RMF 2008). http://statistics.unwto.org/en/content/conceptual-framework-tsa-tourism-satellite-

            account-recommended-methodological-framework-tsar.

 

   92.   Visiongain. “Medical Device Contract Manufacturing: World Market Outlook 2013-2023”. (January 2013). http://www.

           vision gain.com/ Report/970/Medical-Device-Contract-Manufacturing-World-Market-Outlook-2013 -2023.

 

   93.   World Bank (2013). “Trade and Innovation in Services, Evidence from a Developing Economy.” Iacovone, Leonardo

            et al, Policy Research Working Paper Number 6520, June 2013. http:// econ.worldbank.org/external/default/main?

            pagePK=64165259 &theSitePK=469382&piPK=64165421&menuPK=64166093&entityID= 000158349_201306280

            91226

 

   94.   ---------------- (2013). “Doing Business Report: Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises.” 10th

           Edition. http://www.doingbusiness.org/reports/global-reports/doing-business-2013

 

   95.   ----------------(2013). “Services Trade Restrictiveness Database Online” http://iresearch.worldbank.org/servicetrade.

           Accessed on September 15, 2013.

 

   96.   --------------- (2012). World Development Indicators, Washington, D.C. http://pdfdownload.me/world-development-

            indicators-2012.

 

   97.   --------------  (2011). Dominican Republic “From the International Financial Crisis Towards Inclusive Growth in the

           Dominican Republic” Policy Note 56513, ed. Senderowitsch, Roby and Yvonne M. Tsikata, January 1, 2011.

           http://documents.world bank.org/curated/en/2010/01/17193928/international-financial-crisis-towards-inclusive-growth-

           dominican-republic#

 

   98.   ------------------- (2010). “The Offshore Services Value Chain, Developing Countries and the Crisis.” Gary Gereffi and

           Karina Fernandez Start, Policy Research Paper 5262, April 2010. http:// www-wds.worldbank.org/external/ default/

           WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/04/07/000158349_20100407091357/Rendered/ PDF/WPS5262.pdf.

 

   99.   -------------------- (2005). “A Time to Choose Caribbean Development in the 21st Century.” Report No. 31725-LAC, April

           7, 2005.

 

  100.  World Health Organization. “Pharmaceutical Industry.” (2013). http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story073/en/index.

           html

 

  101.  World Trade Organization, UNWTO, OECD (2013). Aid for Trade and Value Chains in Tourism. http://www.wto.org/

           english/tratop_e/devel_e/a4t_e/globalreview13prog_e/tourism _28 june.pdf.

 

  102.    -------------- (2012). International Trade Statistics 2012. http:// www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2012_e/its12_

           toc_e. htm.

 

  103. ----------------(2001). “Doha WTO Ministerial 2001: Ministerial Declaration” WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1,  November 20, 2001.

 

   

 

IDO        ISSN: 1093-8281                 Copyright © 2017 International Development Options

                                                                                                All Rights Reserved