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      Edgar Bwalya

     Department of Political and Administrative Studies

     University of Botswana, Post Bag UB 0075

     Gaborone, Botswana

     E-mail address:

     Published online: February 10, 2017





    1.    Ademola Oyejide Titiloye, Bankole S Abiodun and Adewuyi O Adeolu (2009). “China–Africa Trade Relations: Insights

          from AERC Scoping Studies European.” Journal of Development Research 21, pp. 485–505.


    2.   AFP News, December 3, 2010.


    3.   AFP News (2010). “Zambia Turns to China for Loans.” March 3, 2010.


    4.   African Development Bank, OECD, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), United Nations Program

          Development (2011). African Economic Outlook 2011 Africa and its Emerging Partners (Paris: OECD Publishing).


    5.    Agence France-Press, “High-seas Collision Trigger Japan-China Spat.” September 7, 2010.


    6.   Alden, Chris (2007). China in Africa. London: Zed Books.


    7.   ANIS (2011). US Will Counter China's Military Build-up: Gates, January 9, 2011.


    8.   Anonymous (2008). “Zambia: Pros and Cons of China-Zambia Relations.” African Business, February, Issue 339.


    9.   Anshan Li (2008). “China’s New Policy toward Africa.” In China into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence, Editor: Robert I.



   10.   Arsence, Codrin (2011). “China, Zambia and the Racist Undertones of Western Journalists.” African Politics, Portal,

          September 19, 2011.


   11.    BBC News (2006). “China to Double its aid to Africa.” November.


   12.   BBC World Service, Lusaka, Zambia


   13.   BBC, World Business Report. (2001). “Zambia Fights to Save Copper Mines.” April 1, 2001.


   14.   Bearak, Barry. (2010). “Zambia Uneasily Balances Chinese Investment and Workers’ Resentment.” New York Times,

          November 20, 2010.


   15.   Bonicelli, Paul (2010) "Zambians Send a 20-Year Government Packing and Warn the Chinese They Could Be Next."

          Foreign Policy, October.


   16.   Brautigam, Deborah. (2010). The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Oxford. New York: New York:

           University Press.


   17.   Burke, C. S. Naidu and A. Nepgen (2008). Scoping Study on China's Relations with South Africa. Nairobi: AERC



   18.   Business Daily, January 6, 2007.


   19.   Business Monitor, on line.


   20.  Cameron, Jackie. (2011). "We're Not Economic Villains in Africa – China to US.” Moneyweb, June 23, 2011.


   21.   Carmody, Pádraig and Taylor Ian. (2009). “Flexigemony and Force in China's Economic Strategy in Africa: Sudan and

           Zambia Compared.” Institute for International Integration Studies, The Institute for International Integration Studies

           Discussion Paper Series with number iiisd.


   22.  Carmody, Pádraig. (2009). "An Asian-Driven Economic Recovery in Africa? The Zambian Case." World Development,

           37 (7), 1197-1207.


   23.  Chimangeni, Isabel (2006). “China's Growing Presence Met With Resistance.” IPS News, October 18, 2006.


   24.  China Daily (2004). “‘Five Principles,’ Still Shaping Global Peace.” June 29, 2004.


   25.  China Economic Review Publishing. “Early Days for China's Labor Law, January 22, 2010,


   26.  China-Africa News, “China-Zambia Relations.” June 10, 2011.


   27.  Chris Alden. (2007). China in Africa. London: Zed Books.


   28.  CNN News, January 17, 2011.


   29.  Coal Mountain, “African Union to Tackle Human Rights Abuses of Mineworkers.” October 25, 2010.


   30.  Corkin, L and C. Burke (2008). “Constructive Engagement: An Overview of China’s Role in Africa’s Construction

           Industries.” A publication of the Center for Chinese Studies (CCS), Chinese Studies at Stellenbosch University, South



   31.   Desta, Asayehgn, (2009). “Chinese Investments in Ethiopia: Political Warfare Operations or South-South Cooperation?”

          Tigrai Online, May 21, 2009.


   32.  Down, Erica (2011). Inside China, Inc.: China Development Bank' Cross-Border Energy Deals. Monograph. New York:

          Brookings Institution: March.


   33.  Embassy of the People's Republic of China, (2010). “2010 China-Zambia Relation Inretrospect.” Lusaka: Embassy of the

          People's Republic of China in the Republic of Zambia.


   34.  Fantu, Cheru and Obi Cyril (2010). (editors) The Rise of China and India in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and

          Critical Interventions. Zed Books.


   35.  Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. (2011). China-Africa Trade and Economic Relationship Annual Report 2010.

          Beijing: China-Africa Research Center.


   36.  Gondwe, Kenedy (2010). “China Reaps Reward of Zambia Copper Investment.” BBC World Service, February 19, 2010.


   37.  Habib, A. (2008). Seeing the New African Scramble for What is Really is: Reflections on the United States and China.

          A publication of the Center for Chinese Studies (CCS), Chinese Studies at Stellenbosch University, South Africa.


   38.  Haglund, Dan (2009). "In It for the Long Terms? Governance and Learning Among Chinese Investors in Zambia's

          Copper Sector." The China Quarterly, Volume 199, September, pp.627-646.


   39.  Halper, Stefan. (2010). “Bad Bet Against China's Leaders “Greater China: The Beijing Consensus.” Asia Times, March

          27, 2010.


   40.  Hugh B Miller, Thomson Sinkala, Ralph F Renger, Erin M Peacock, Joseph A Tabor, Jefferey l Burgess. (2006).

          “Identifying Antecedent Conditions Responsible for the High Rate of Mining Injuries in Zambia.” International Journal

          of Occupational Environmental Health 12 (4), pp. 329-339.


   41.   Hurrell, Andrew and Amritra Narlikar (2006). “A New Politics of Confrontation? Brazil and India in Multilateral Trade

          Negotiations.” Global Society 20, pp.415-33.


   42.  IPS News, March 13, 2012.


   43.  IPS News, “South-South, Win-Win?” March 12, 2012.

   44.  IRIN (2006). “Africa: China’s Great Leap into the Continent.” March 23.


   45.  International Poverty Reduction Center in China (2010). China – IPRCC as a Platform for South-South Cooperation.

          Beijing: Division of Exchanges, International, Poverty Reduction Center in China (IPRCC).


   46.  Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment - Southern Africa, Air force (Zambia), Air force, posted on line on April 13, 2012.


   47.  Junbo, Jian “China in Africa: From Capitalism to Colonialism.” Asia Times, on line, January 5, 2007.You +1'd this                        publicly.


   48.  Kapekele, Mutale and Chiwoyu Sinyangwe (2010). “Sichinga Accuses China of Raping Zambia’s Resources.” The Post,

          February 9, 2010.


   49.  Kaplinsky, R., D. McCormick and M. Morris (2006). The Impact of China on Sub-Saharan Africa. Beijing: DFID, China

          Office (mimeo).

   50.  Kweku Ampiah and Sanusha Naidu editors (2008). Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon?Africa and China. Scotsville:

          University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.


   51.   Kyambalesa, Henry (2009). “Zambia: Pros and Cons of Chinese Investments in Zambia.” Lusaka Times, December 31,



   52.  Laishley, Roy (2009). “Africa: Emerging Economies Hold Promise for Continent.” Africa Renewal, August 10, 2009.


   53.    ---------------------(2009). “Trade: Africa Must Play Smart with Asia Not Just Submit to Partner Strategies!” Afrik-News,

           September 8, 2009.


   54.  Lusaka Times, “NFCA Increase Pay to K2million for Lowest Paid Worker.” October 10, 2011.


   55.  Lusaka Times, “There is No Cabinet Memo on Government’s Intention to Increase Stake in Mining Companies –

          Chikwanda.” November16, 2011.


   56.  Lusaka Times, “Windfall Tax Maybe Re-introduced After Cabinet Discussions Conclude-Bob Sichinga.” November 14,



   57.  Lusaka Times, February 10, 2011.


   58.  Lusaka Times, “Government Appreciates Chinese Investments – RB” October 19, 2009.


   59.  Lusaka Times, “Zambia: Luanshya MMD Happy with President Banda’s Performance.” Monday, December 28, 2009.


   60.  Lusaka Times, October 19, 2009.


   61.   Macha Christeter (2010). “Africa: A Closer Look at Selfless Chinese Investments in the Country,” Times of Zambia.”

          July 26, 2010.


   62.   Magistad Kay Mary (2011). “The World’s China’s Investment in Zambia.” BBC News, September 28, 2011.


   63.   _________________ (2011). “Mining in Zambia – One Year After Collum Coal Incident,” The World, October 4, 2011.


   64.   McGreal, Chris (2007). “Thanks China, Now go Home: Buy-up of Zambia Revives Old Colonial Fears.” The Guardian,

           February 5, 2007.


   65.   Ministry of Chinese Foreign Affairs (2000). “Premier Zhou Enlai’s Three Tours of Asian and African countries.” Beijing:

           Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China.


   66.   Moses Kuwema (2011). “Sata to send KK to China as Special Envoy.” Post Newspaper, October 30, 2011.


   67.   Msekwa, Pius (2011). “Africa Says ‘No’ to "China Threat" – Interview with the Vice Chairman Msekwa of the

           Revolutionary Party of Tanzania. China News, 4 January 2010.


   68.   Mulenga, Kaela (2007). “An Enlightened Perspective: A Case of Unguarded." UKZambians, Saturday, June 9th, 2007.


   69.   Mundy, Simon (2011). “Chinese Accused of Zambian Labor Abuses.” The Financial Times January 20, 2011.


   70.   Mwanawina, Inyambo. (2008). “China-Africa Relations: A Case of Zambia.” Nairobi: African Economic Consortium.


   71.    Mwenya George (2012). “Opposition Has the Right to Criticize Government, Says Milupi.” Zambia Reports, June 27,



   72.   Negi, R. (2008). "Beyond the "Chinese Scramble: The Political Economy of Anti-China Sentiment in Zambia." African

           Geographical Review 27, pp.41-63.


   73.   Ngandwe Talent (2007). “Knowledge for Natural Resources: A Fair Exchange?, June 22, 2007.


   74.   Osei-Hwedie, Z. Bertha (2008). “China-Africa Relations in the New Millennium: Opportunities and Challenges.”

           The Icfai Journal of international Relations II (1), pp.44-59.   


   75.   Pan Esther (2006). “Q&A: China, Africa, and Oil.” New York Times, January 18.


   76.   Polgreen, Lydia (2007). “New Power in Africa: China’s Trade in Africa Carries a Price Tag.” New York Times,

           August 21, 2007.


   77.   Post Newspaper, “Zambia: (UPND) President Hakainde Hichilema Backs Chinese Investment.” December 28, 2009.


   78.   Quist-Arcton Ofeibea (2008). “Chinese-Built Zambian Smelter Stirs Controversy.” National Public Radio, July 31, 2008.


   79.   Redvers, Louise (2011). “China's Stake in Zambia's Election.” BBC News, August 18, 2011.


   80.  Sata, Chilufya Michael. (2007). "Chinese Investment in Africa and Implications for International Relations,

           Consolidation of Democracy and Respect for Human Rights: The Case of Zambia," Paper presented to the Harvard

           University Committee on Human Rights Studies Events Series, Harvard University, Cambridge, Boston, MA. October



   81.   Sautman Barry and Hairong Yan (2011). “Human Rights Watch and Chinese Copper Mining in Zambia.” Pambazuka,

           December 14, Issue 563.


   82.   Shinn H. David (2011). “The Impact of China’s Growing Influence in Africa.” The European Financial Review, April-May,

            pp. 16-19;


   83.   Simumba, Trevor (2011). “Zambia is One of the Fastest Growing Economies in the World.” Zambian Watchdog. January

            14, 2011.


   84.   South-South News. “The Eighth Annual UN Day for South-South Cooperation.” December 19, 2011.


   85.   Southall, Rogerand Henning Melber, Henning (editors) (2009). A New Scramble for Africa? - Imperialism, Investment

           and Development. Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.


   86.   Spears, Collin (2009). "The Chinese-African Relationship: Can Sub-Saharan Africans Think." Booksreview, April 20,



   87.   Staff Reporters, “Sata invites Chinese to Explore Investment Opportunities.” March 15, 2012.


   88.   Stefan, Halper (2010). Beijing Consensus: How China's Authoritarian Model Will Dominate the Twenty-First Century.

           New York: Basic Books.


   89.   Taylor, Ian (2010). China’s New Role in Africa. London/Boulder: Lynne Reiner Publishers.


   90.    -------------- (2007). “China’s Growth into Sub-Saharan Africa.” In L. Castllani, Pang Zhongying and Ian Taylor (Editors)

           Outside China: China in Africa. Turin, Italy lentoid Att Saudi Sulla Cina Conteporaned.


   91.     -------------- (2006). China and Africa: Engagement and Compromise. London and New York, Routledge.


   92.   Thalif Deen, “China, India Lead South-South Cooperation.” IPS News, November 24, 2009.


   93.   The Economist, January 6, 2011.


   94.   The Huffington Post, “Hillary Clinton Warns Africa of 'New Colonialism.” June 11, 2011.


   95.   The Post Newspapers, “Zambia Courts Brazilian Investors.” October 20, 2009.


   96.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations. (2003). Report to the 58th session of the General Assembly, “State of

            South-South Cooperation.” Background paper Office of the Chairman of the Group of 77, New York, United Nations

            A/58/319, August. 25, 2003.


   97.   Times of Zambia, “Chief Mpidi Cries for Chinese Contractors." January 2, 2010.


   98.   Times of Zambia, “VP Woos More Chinese Investors.” July 28, 2010.


   99.   Times of Zambia, April 16, 2010.


  100.  Times of Zambia, July.27, 2010.


   101.  Tulli D. (2006). "China’s Engagement in Africa: Scope Significant and Consequences.” Journal of African Studies,

            Volume 44, Number 3, pp.459-479.


  1 02.  UPI News, “Energy Resources: China's Power Play for Africa alarms U.S.” June 22, 2011.

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