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     Bertha Z. Osei-Hwedie,

     Chair, Center for Culture and Peace Studies

     Department of Political and Administrative Studies

     Faculty of Social Sciences

     University of Botswana

     Private Bag 00705, Gaborone, Botswana


     Published online: February 10, 2017



   1.    Adebajo, A. (2011). UN Peacekeeping in Africa. Auckland Park: Fanele.


   2.    Baylis, J, S. Smith and P. Owens (2008). The Globalization of World Politics. Fourth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University



   3.    Gill, B. and Chin-Hao Huang (2009). China’s Expanding Role in Peacekeeping: Prospects and Policy Implications.

          Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Policy Paper 25, November, pp.1-36.


   4.    Hellstrom, J (2009). Blue Berets Under the Red Flag: China in the UN Peacekeeping System. Stockholm: FOI Swedish

          Defence Research Agency.


   5.    Hirono, M. (2011). “China’s Charm Offensive and Peacekeeping: The Lessons of Cambodia – What Now for Sudan?”

          International Peacekeeping 8 (3), pp.328-343.


   6.    Huang, C-H (2011). “Principles and Praxis of China’s Peacekeeping.” International Peacekeeping 18 (3), pp. 257-270.


   7.    Information Office of the State Council, The People’s Republic of China (2011). China’s National Defense in 2010,

          March. First Edition. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press Company.


   8.    Kagwanja, P. (2009). “China’s ‘Hard Power’ in Africa: The “New Beijing Consensus” and Africa Security.” Africa Policy

          Institute Working Paper Series (API), 2 (Pretoria: API).


   9.    Karlsson, K. (2011). China and Peacekeeping: Contributions to UN Peace Operations from 2000-2010 and the Theory

          of Offensive Realism. Minor Field Study Report, Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.



  10.   Kohli, J. S. (2009). China’s Africa Policy. New Delhi: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies.


  11.    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China (2006). China’s African Policy, January 2006. http://www.

 Retrieved on April 10, 2010.


  12.   Mockli, D (2007). The Rise of China: Regional and Global Power Shifts. Center for Security Studies (CSS). February 28.
 ph/ details.cfm? Ing=en&id=28895. Retrieved on May 19, 2008.


  13.   Morgenthau, H. (1973). Politics among Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill.


  14.   Nkechi, O. O. (2007). “Civilian Protection in African Peacekeeping: A Gender Perspective.” Conflict Trends, The

         African Center for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD), Issue 4, pp.16-22.


  15.   Osei-Hwedie, B. Z. (2011a). “China-Africa Shared Development?” Paper prepared for the Chinese Academy of Social

          Sciences, Beijing, June.


  16.    --------------------- (2011b). “Japan in Africa: Building Sustainable Peace?” South African Journal of International Affairs

          18 (1), April, pp. 87-105.


  17.   Pengtao, L (2009). “Analysis of China’s Participation in African Peacekeeping Operations.” In Hongwu, L and Y.

         Jiemian (editors) Fifty Years of Sino-African Cooperation: Background, Progress and Significance. Yunnan University

         Press, pp. 388-395.


  18.  Saferworld (2011). China’s Growing Role in African Peace and Security. heep://www.saferworld., pp. 115.

         Retrieved on November 16, 2011.


  19.  Selby, C (2008). “The Political Economy of Liberal War and Peace.” In M. Pugh, N. Cooper and M. Turner, Whose

        Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.


  20.  Sicurelli, D (2010). “Competing Models of Peacekeeping: The Role of the EU and China in Africa.” Paper presented at

          the Fifth Pan-European Conference on EU Politics, Porto, Portugal, June 23-26.


  21.  Singh, P (2011). “China’s ‘Military Diplomacy’: Investigating PLA’s participation in UN Peacekeeping Operations.”

         Strategic Analysis 35 (5), pp.793-818, August 9.


  22.  Staehle, S (2006). China’s Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Regime. MA Thesis, George Washington

         University. 1961/4312/1/Thesis_Staehle_Final.pdf. Retrieved on April 12, 2012.


  23.  UNAIDS (2011). World AIDS Day Report. (Geneva: UNAIDS). on

         March 28, 2012.


  24.  Van Hoeymissen, S (2010). “China’s Support to Africa’s Regional Security Architecture: Helping Africa to Settle

         Conflicts and Keep the Peace?" The China Monitor, Issue 49, March.


  25.  Wenping, H (2011). “China’s Diplomacy in Africa.”, pp.1-7.

          Retrieved on November 16, 2011.


  26.  Wuthnow, J (2011). Beyond the Veto: Chinese Diplomacy in the United Nations Security Council.  Ph.D Dissertation,

         Columbia University. htpp://www.academiccommons. pdf.

         Accessed on April 12, 2012.

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