top of page




      Elizabeth Ince and Roger Hosein

     Department of Economics,

     University of the West Indies,

     St. Augustine, Trinidad

      Published online: February 10, 2017



   1.   Acorn Consulting Partnership Limited (2008). Developing a Niche Tourism Market Database for the Caribbean. Report

        prepared for the Caribbean Tourism Organization.


   2.   Ali-Knight, J. (2010). The Role of Niche Tourism Products in Destination Development. PhD thesis, Edinburgh Napier



   3.   Barbados Fertility Center. “In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).” Accessed on April 3, 2012 from 


   4.   Bharat Book Bureau (2011). “Asian Medical Tourism Analysis (2008-2012).” July 2011.


   5.   Bookman M. Z. and Bookman K. R. (2007). Medical Tourism in Developing Countries. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.


   6.   Bourne, Compton (2013). “Some Trends in Caribbean Tourism.” Caribbean Center for Money and Finance Newsletter.

         6 (2).  


   7.   Bubna, P. (2013). “Multiplier Effect in Medical Tourism: A Case Study Reference to Rajasthan.” Asia Pacific Journal of

        Marketing & Management Review 2 (1).


   8.   Caldentey, Esteban (2007). “Debt in CARICOM: Origins and Consequences for Growth and Economic Development.”

         Business, Finance & Economics in Emerging Economies 2 (1).


   9.   Caribbean Tourism Organization (2011). “Caribbean Tourism – State of the Industry (February 2011).” Accessed on July

         22, 2013 from


  10.   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) “2010 State Obesity Rates” Last modified on August 16, 2013. http://



  11.    Phelps, Charles E., and Cathleen Mooney (1993)."Variations in Medical Practice Use: Causes and Consequences."

         Competitive Approaches to Health Care Reform, pp. 139-178.


  12.   Collinder, Avia (2013). “US$170m Medical Tourism Facility for St James.” The Gleaner, February 14, 2013. http://jamaica-

 Id =42876


  13.   Connell, John. (2013. "Medical Tourism in the Caribbean Islands: A Cure for Economies in Crisis?" Island Studies

         Journal 8 (1), pp.115-130.


  14.    ---------------------(2011). Medical Tourism. Oxfordshire: CAB International.


  15.    ---------------------(2006) “Medical Tourism: Sea, Sun, Sand and … Surgery.”  Tourism Management 27, pp.1093



  16.   Costa Rica Medical Tourism (2013). “Costa Rica to host 250 companies for fourth International Medical Tourism

          Congress.” Accessed on August 26, 2013  http://www.costamedical tourism. com/news/fourth-international-medical-

         tourism-congress 2013. html. 


  17.   Crooks, Valorie A., Turner, Leigh, Snyder, Jeremy, Johnston, Rory, Kingsbury, Paul (2011). “Promoting Medical Tourism

         to India: Messages, Images, and the Marketing of International Patient Travel.” Social Science & Medicine 72,

         pp. 726-732.


  18.   Crooks, Valorie and Snyder, Jeremy (2011). “What Canadian Family Physicians Need to Know About Medical

          Tourism.” Canadian Family Physician. 57 (5), pp.527-529.


  19.    Emert, Frederick (2013). “Op-Ed: Medical Tourism in the Caribbean.” Caribbean Journal, January 15, 2013.


  20.   Faini R. (2002). “Development, Trade, and Migration.” Revue d’Économie et du Dévelopement, Proceedings from the

          ABCDE Europe Conference, 1-2, (2002), pp.85-116.


  21.    Freire, N. (2012). “The Emergent Medical Tourism: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Medical Treatments Abroad.”

          International Business Research. 5 Number (2).


  22.   Gokhale, Ketaki (2013). “Cayman to Singapore Gain as Rules Stump Clinics: Corporate India.” The Washington Post,

          August 14, 2013.



  23.   Gray, H. H. & Poland, S. C. (2008). “Medical Tourism: Crossing Borders to Access Healthcare.” Kennedy Institute Ethics

          Journal 18, pp.193-201.


  24.   Grout, Pam (2013). “Medical Tourism: A Global Stampede for Affordable Care.” CNN Travel, March 22, 2013. http://



  25.   Hamdan, Sara (2012). “Thailand Profits from Health Care to Arab Patients.” The New York Times, February 8, 2012.



  26.   Health Core (2011). The Philippine Medical Tourism Compendium 2011 (Facts, Figures & Strategies). Accessed on 

          March 29, 2012 from http://www. healthcore. 20Medical %20 Tourism%20Compedium%



  27.   Hosein Roger, Franklin, Martin, Joseph, Samantha C. (2009). “The Caribbean Diaspora - An Untapped Resource for

          Impacting Economic Development through Investments in the Caribbean.” The University of the West Indies.


  28.   Huff-Rousselle, M., Shepherd, C., Cushman, R., Imrie, J., and Lalta, S. (1995). Prospects for Health Tourism Exports for

           the English-speaking Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Bank.


  29.   Inside Costa Rica (2013). “Medical Tourism: Latin America is a Prime Destination.” Accessed 14, 2013 from http://



  30.   International Medical Travel Journal (2013). “JAMAICA: Jamaica Should Target Jamaicans for Medical Tourism.”

          International Medical Travel Journal. July 12, 2013. Entryid82=423521.


  31.    InterVISTAS Consulting Inc. (2007). “Estimating Air Travel Demand Elasticities.” Prepared for the International Air

          Transport Association (IATA) December 2007.


  32.   Klöpping, Laura (2012). Health Tourism in Switzerland. GRIN Verlag.


  33.   Koenig-Lewis, N., Bischoff, E. (2005). “Seasonality Research: The State of the Art.” International Journal of Tourism

          Research. Volume 7, Numbers 4-5, pp. 201-219.


  34.   KPMG International Cooperative (2011). “Medical Tourism Gaining Momentum.” KPMG International Issues Monitor 7.


  35.   Lew, Alan A (2008). "Long Tail Tourism: New Geographies for Marketing Niche Tourism Products." Journal of Travel &

          Tourism Marketing. 25 (3-4), pp.409-419.


  36.   Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel, and William C. Hsiao (2003). "Does Universal Health Insurance Make Health Care Unaffordable?

          Lessons from Taiwan." Health Affairs 22 (3),pp.77-88.


  37.   Lunt Neil, Smith Richard, Exworthy Mark, Green Stephen T., Horsfall Daniel, Mannion Russell (2011).  Medical Tourism:

         Treatments, Markets and Health System Implications: A Scoping Review. OECD.


  38.   Nagarajan, Gowri Shankar (2004). “Medical Tourism in India: Strategy for its Development.” Dissertation. Indian

           Institute of Management-Bangalore.


  39.   NaRanong, Anchana and NaRanong, Viroj (2011). “The Effects of Medical Tourism: Thailand’s Experience.” Bulletin of

          The World Health Organization 89, pp.336-344. Accessed March 2, 2012 from doi:10.2471/BLT09. 072249.


  40.   Novelli, Marina (Editor). (2005). Niche Tourism; Contemporary Issues, Trends and Cases. Massachusetts: Elsevier



  41.   Nurse, K. (2004). “Migration, Diaspora and Development.” Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas & Canadian

          Foundation for the Americas, Zacatecas.


  42.   Nwafor, O. (2012). “Niche Tourism and the Challenges of Developing Medical Tourism in the Western Cape Province of

          South Africa.” Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS). 3 (4), pp.600-604.


  43.   PAHO and USAID (2007). Public Health Capacity in Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment and Strengthening.

          Washington, D.C:  PAHO.


  44.   Patients Beyond Borders. “Costa Rica.” Last modified September 24, 2013.  http://www.patientsbeyond



  45.   Patients Beyond Borders. “Medical Tourism of Costa Rica.”  Last modified July 2, 2011. http://www.patientsbeyond

          borders. com/ facilitator/medical-tourism-costa-rica


  46.   Patients Beyond Borders (2012). Estimated Number of Medical Travelers by Country for 2010. Accessed on January 4,



  47.   PROMED (n.d.). “Institutional Summary.” Accessed on August 26, 2013. Available from http://www.promedcostarica.



  48.   Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B. (2011). “Medical Tourism in the Caribbean.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and

          Society 36 (2), pp.289-297.


  49.   Reid, Tyrone (2012). “STRONG MEDICINE - Foreigners Travelling to Jamaica For Health-Care Services.” The Gleaner,

          April 22, 2012. http://jamaica-gleaner. com/gleaner/20120422/lead/lead1.html


  50.   Roerig, Howard (2013). “Medical Tourism: A Free Market Alternative to ObamaCare.” The Objective Standard, 

          February 18, 2013. index. php/2013/02/medical-tourism-a-free-



  51.   Ringel, J., Hosek, S., Vollaard, B., Mahnovski, S. (2002). “The Elasticity of Demand for Health Care; A Review of the

          Literature and its Application to the Military Health System.” Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense,

          National Defense Research Institute, RAND Health.


  52.   Sengupta, Amit (2011). “Medical Tourism: Reverse Subsidy for the Elite.” Signs 36, pp.312-319.


  53.   Shactman, David, Stuart H. Altman, Efrat Eilat, Kenneth E. Thorpe, and Michael Doonan. (2003). "The Outlook for

          Hospital Spending." Health Affairs 22 (6), pp.12-26.


  54.   Silvera Janet (2009). “MoBay: Potential Health Tourism Center.” The Gleaner, September 14, 2009. http://www.

  gleaner/20090914/ news/news1.html.


  55.   Smith, Kristen (2008). “Medical Tourism: For Richer or Poorer.” Paper presented at Ownership & Appropriation, a joint

           conference of the ASA, the ASAANZ and the AAS, University of Auckland, New Zealand, December 8-12, 2008.


  56.   Thomas, Clive (2010). "Global Economic Crisis: CARICOM Impacts and Responses." Caribbean Development Report

           2, pp. 6-33.


  57.   Travers, Robert., Thelen Stefan, Helmy Eman, Nabil Neveen, Elmasri Ali W. (2008). Medical Tourism Development

           Strategy. Cairo: AIT Consulting, B2LS Consulting.


  58.   UNESCO-Nigeria Project for Revitalization of TVE in Nigeria (2010). Accessed in March 2013 from http://unesco

  teaching%20materials/ltm/Leisure%20&%20tourism %20management/semester2/LTM125%20Special%



  59.   United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (2010). “Medical Tourism: A Survey.”\

           ECLAC: Washington, D.C.


  60.   University of California at Berkeley (2003). “More on the Demand for Medical Care, Chapter 5, Lecture 13. Accessed in

          March 2013 from http://emlab


  61.    Warf, Barney (2010). "Do You Know the Way to San José? Medical tourism in Costa Rica." Journal of Latin American

          Geography 9 (1), pp.51-66.


  62.   World Health Organization (2011) World Health Statistics 2011, WHO: France.


  63.   World Travel and Tourism Council (2013). "Travel & Tourism Forecast to Pass 100m Jobs and $2 Trillion GDP in 2012.”

           Accessed in March 2013 from travel-tourism-forecast-pass-100m-


bottom of page