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    Abdullahi Abdulkadri1, Kevon Rhiney2,* and Lloyd Waller3

    1.  Department of Economics

    2. Department of Geography and Geology

    3. Department of Government

    The University of the West Indies, Mona Campus

    Kingston, Jamaica

    Published online: February 10, 2017



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        Available at Norman Girvan: Retrieved on October 16,



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        Pdf. Retrieved on October 19, 2012.


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        Augustine: Caribbean Center for Money and Finance (CCMF).


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 10.   Dluhosch, B. (2001). Industrial Location and Economic Integration. Cheltenham. Edward Elgar.


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         York: United Nations.


 12.   European Commission. (2012). Regional Policy. (European Commission, Producer):

         policy/index_en. cfm. Retrieved on October 22, 2012.


 13.   Giannetti, M. (2002). "The Effects of Integration on Regional Dispar ities: Convergence, Divergence or Both?"

        European Economic Review 46 (3), pp.539-567.


 14.   Girvan, N. (2010). "CARICOM's Elusive Quest for Economic Integration." In F. Alleyne & D. L.-B. Archibald, Growth and

        Development Strategies in the Caribbean (pp. 199-218). Bridgetown: Caribbean Development Bank.


 15.   Hornbeck, J. F. (2008). CARICOM: Challenges and Opportunities for Caribbean Integration. United States Congress.

        Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service.


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 17.   König, J., & Ohr, R. (2012). Homogeneous groups within a heterogeneous community – Evidence from an index

        measuring European economic integration. Center for European Governance and Economic Development Research.

        Göttigen: Georg- August-Universitat.


 18.   Krugman, P (1991a). "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography." Journal of Political Economy 99, pp. 483-



 19.    ------------------ (1991b). Geography and Trade. Published jointly by Leuven University Press and the MIT Press.


 20.   Krugman, P., and Venables, A. (1995). "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations." The Quarterly Journal of

         Economics 110, pp. 857-880.


 21.    ----------------------------------- (1990). "Integration and the Competitiveness of Peripheral Industry." In C. Bliss, & J. Braga De

         Macedo, Unity with Diversity in the European Economy: The Community’s Southern Frontier. Cambridge University



 22.   Lewis, P. (2010).  "Implications of the Global Economic Crisis for Caribbean Regional Integration," Global Development

         Studies. 6, pp. 1-24.


 23.   Lucas, R. E. (1990). "Why Doesn’t Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries?" American Economic Association Papers

         and Proceedings. 80 (2), pp.92–96.


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 25.   Nicholls, S., Birchwood, A., Colthrust, P. and Boodoo, E. (2000). “The State of and Prospects for the Deepening and

          Widening of Caribbean Integration,” World Economy. 23 (9), pp.1161-94.


 26.   OTN. (2008). Private Sector Trade Note. Office of Trade Negotiations (OTN). Bridgetown: CARICOM.


 27.   Symbiont Consulting and KPMG. (2011). Consultancy to Develop Implementation Plan and Work Program and

         Financing Proposals in Relation to the Factors and Circumstances Restricting the Full Integration of the OECS and

         Belize into the CSME. CARICOM. Georgetown: CARICOM.


 28.   United Nations (2013). World Populations Prospects: The 2012 Revisions. New York: United Nations, Department of

         Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.


 29.   Venables, A. J. (2006). Shifts in Economic Geography and Their Causes. Proceedings, pp. 15-39. Kansas City: Federal

         Reserve Bank of Kansas City.


 30.  Villaverde, J. & Maza, A. (2009.) Measurement of Regional Economic Disparities. United Nations University.


 31.   World Bank (2005). A Time To Choose: Caribbean Development in the 21st Century. Washington D.C.: World Bank.


 32.   ----------------- (2011). Gross National Income Per Capita 2011, Atlas Method and PPP. Retrieved on October 17, 2012 from

         World Bank Development Indicators. Available from http://data.worldbank.Org/ indicator.


 33.   -------------------(2012). Worldwide Governance Indicators. Accessed from http:// info.worldbank. org/governance/wgi/

         Index.asp. Retrieved on October 10, 2012.

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